Strategy Game Programming  Endgame Databases 
Endgame DatabasesIntroductionEndgame databases play a major role in some strategy games, such as Nine Men's Morris, Awari or Checkers (the first of which was solved thanks to endgame databases). In other games, they are less important (e.g. Chess) while in some games they are irrelevant/impossible to compute (Connect 4, Othello, Go). Perhaps you noticed the differences in these games? Endgame databases can generally only be computed for games where only few pieces remain on the board. The exact number of pieces which can still be handled depends on the complexity of the game. For games in which the number of pieces decreases as the game progresses, endgame databases might be useful. For games where the number of pieces increases or remains constant, endgame databases cannot be computed (unless the game is really simple). Whether or not the endgame databases are relevant will depend on the game. For example, in chess, there are endgame databases available with up to 6 pieces on the board, e.g. king, rook and pawn vs. king rook and pawn. This kind of endgame (and others with at most 6 pieces) occur rather infrequently in practice, and therefore the databases have no real impact on playing strength. In checkers (the Anglosaxon version), endgame databases up to 8 pieces are available, while the 10 piece database has been computed. Together with the rule that captures must be executed, this means that a lot of checkers games trade down into endgame database positions very quickly. The endgame databases make a huge difference in playing strength in checkers. Solving games completely often also requires endgame databases  a combination of a forwardsearch from the starting position together with an endgame database can then be used to solve the game. This was the approach taken by Gasser for Nine Men's Morris, and also the approach that the Chinook team is currently using in their effort to solve checkers.
Different types of endgame databasesEndgame databases come in different flavors. They all know whether a given position in the database is a win, loss or draw. If that is all the database contains, it is called a WLDdatabase (by me, at least). If the database contains information on how long it will take until the game is over, it is called a distancetomate (DTM) database. If it contains only the information on how long it will take until a conversion into another database takes place, it is called a distancetoconversion (DTC) database. The WLD database has the problem that even though a program may be in a winning position, it might not be able to actually win the game. After all, all the database tells it is that it has a win, and it also tells it which moves conserve the win. But some winconserving moves may increase the distance to mate, and the program cannot easily decide which of these winconserving moves to make. DTM databases are obviously better in this respect, since you just make the winconserving move with the lowest DTM associated. DTC databases also solve the problem of winning a won position, however the program might take longer than necessary to do so. You may wonder why anybody would use WLD at all. The reason is simple: storing WLD information only needs much less space, and larger portions of the database can be kept in memory, if the database size is larger than the amount of memory of the computer (which is typically the case). Accessing the database on the harddisk is not really an option, as the disk is very slow compared to memory.Constructing endgame databasesEndgame database construction is a fairly simple process, with many details involved which are not important for the understanding of the process. The basic technique is known as retrograde analysis, it was invented or at least first used seriously by Ken Thompson AFAIK. Here's how it works: Let's say you want to solve the endgame King+Rook vs King. You start out with an index function, which returns a number for every possible King+Rook vs King position. The index function also needs an inverse, mapping the number X back to a position. Ideally, the index function maps all N possible legal positions with King+Rook vs King to the numbers 0...N1. If this is the case, we speak of gapless indexing. Alternatively, the index function maps the legal positions to the numbers 0...M1, with M > N  we call this gapped indexing. Gapped indexing is often simpler, because it is easier to construct a gapped indexing function than a gapless function. The memory requirements for the retrograde analysis algorithm are proportional to the maximum index number, so if you produce a gapped index function with M >> N, then you are wasting a lot of memory.Once we have an index function, the retrograde analysis algorithm does the following:
Now that you see the algorithm, you can understand why it is called retrograde  it works backward from all known positions, e.g. mates and conversions to lower databases, one halfmove for every pass through steps 3+4. For example, look at the position: white King on g3, black King on h1, white Rook on a2, black to move. In the mate pass, the algorithm detects that the position wK g3, wR a1, bK g1, black to move, is a mate, and sets the value to LOSS. For our current position, it detects nothing at all. In the first pass of the main loop, it generates all moves for the position wK g3, bK g1, wR a2 and finds that the position after Rb2b1 is a LOSS, and according to the rulse, it can set this position to a WIN. Next, it generates all successors of the position with the black king on h1 and sees that all successor positions are WINs (there is only one). So it sets this position to a LOSS, and that is the correct value. The index functionThe index function is necessary for this algorithm, because you cannot store the whole position and its value for all positions  the value only needs two bits, while the whole position needs lots of memory to describe. You would be wasting an enormous amount of memory if you stored the whole position. Using the index function, you have an implicit position representation in a single number, and instead of saving that number along with the value, you can also save the memory for the number and save the value at the index of an array corresponding to this number. But how can you find an index function with the required properties? It seems like quite a task! In fact, there is a simple way of constructing an index function that is always applicable. For an endgame with distinct pieces (e.g. white King, Rook, black King), it is very simple: You number the squares of the board from 0...63 somehow and write
index = wK_index + 64*wR_index + 64*64*bK_index;
This function has the desired property of transforming a position into a number, it is invertible (wK_index = index%64, wR_index = (index/64)%64 etc.) but it produces some illegal positions (e.g. with pieces on the same square, or kings next to each other). It also doesn't make use of the board symmetry. These details can be adressed, but I don't want to bother about them here. What if there is more than one piece of one kind, e.g. with king + 2 rooks vs king? I could write
index = wK_index + 64*wR1_index + 64*64*wR2_index + 64*64*64*bK_index;
That would work, but it's stupid, because a position with rook #1 on square X and rook #2 on square Y is the same as rook #2 on square X and rook #1 on square Y. We would be using twice as many indexes as necessary! To solve this problem, we use the combinatorial expression for the number of ways of putting 2 identical things on 64 places: from some math class you should know that there are N = 64*63/2 ways of doing so. So we write:
index = wK_index + 64*combinedindex + 64*N*bk_index;
All that remains is to compute the "combined rook index" which is this number between 0...(64*63/2)1 from the individual positions of the rooks. Call these numbers r1 and r2, with r1<r2 (This is where we gain the factor 2!). Then
combinedindex = bicoef(r1,1) + bicoef(r2,2);
where bicoef(x,y) denotes the binomial coefficient of x and y (x>y), given by x!*y!/(xy)! This form of combined index can be produced for any number of pieces. The inversion of this is a bit more complicated. If a combined index is given for k pieces on n squares, we have to find its "constituents" with a sequential search: since the last term of the combined index is always the largest, we compute bicoef(i,k) for i=n1, n2, ... until it is smaller than the combinedindex. Once we find i, we know that a piece is on square i, and subract this bicoef(i,k) from the combinedindex. Then we continue with bicoef(j,k1) for j=i1,i2,...  since we already know that j<i by construction of the index function. CompressionOnce you start building databases, you will quickly notice that you can build huge databases. For example, the 8piece checkers database needs about 40GB of disk space in uncompressed form. If you want to use this on a computer with something like 1GB of ram, you need to compress it. The standard method of compressing such a database is runlength encoding (RLE): when you look at the array of values that the retrograde analysis has produced, it will look something like this:
....WWWBWWLLDBDBDDDWLBLLLWWBDDD...
where WLDB stands for win/loss/draw/broken. Broken means that this position is impossible, which happens with gapped indexing, or in chess with positions where the side not to move is in check. To compress this, we first notice that we can do anything we want with the broken indices  they are not used, so we set them in such a way that the resulting sequence is best compressible:
....WWWWWWLLDDDDDDDWLLLLLWWDDDD...
Runlength encoding now stores pairs of values and runlengths: this example transforms to
(W,6) (L,2) (D,7) (W,1) (L,5) (W,2) (D,4)
If the runs are really long (I didn't have the patience to make an example with looooong runs!), then this type of compression works really well. The checkers 8piece endgame database is reduced to about 4GB, a compression of a factor 10. Accessing databases in the searchOnce you have compressed your database, you also need to write an onthefly decompressor which finds the value for a given position. As if that wasn't enough, you'll have to write your own memory management for your database if it is too large to fit into your ram. You won't want windows (or any other OS) to handle your database, because this is supposed to be highperformance! The general way of handling this is to divide the compressed database in chunks of X KB, and to load an entire chunk at once if you decide you need to know the value of a certain position. It doesn't matter whether you read 1 Byte or 1KB from your harddisk  the speed limitation comes from the seek time of the disk, not its transfer speed. Reading an entire chunk at once loads "similar" positions into the memory  positions that you might need soon. In general, you will want to use a LRU (leastrecentlyused) scheme to decide which chunk should be replaced for the one you are loading. Even with chunks, harddisks are so dreadfully slow compared to memory that you cannot in general look up all database positions you might encounter. Normally you will only do database lookups from disk for positions which are at least X ply away from the leaves of the search tree, in the last X ply you will only look up the position's value if it is in memory already.
For more information take a look at the paper on
checkers database construction
